Sprains and Strains
A sprain is a complete or incomplete tear in the ligaments that support the surrounding joint. A strain is an acute or chronic injury to a muscle or tendinous attachment. Sprains and strains are both classified as mild, moderate or severe in acuteness.
Sprains and strains has moderately different pathyphysiologies:
- * A ligament in the body tears causing the affected area to bleed
- * A hematoma forms
- * Inflammatory exudates spills from the torn ligament area
- * Granulation tissue develops
- * Collagen forms
- * The nerves or vessels begin to swell or stretch
- * Chronic joint instability and laxity result.
- * Strains result from the same process as sprains do.
- * New muscle will form and eventually become strong enough to withstand normal muscle activity.
Causes and Risk Factors
Causes can include:
- * Falling down
- * Car or other motor vehicle accidents
- * Trauma
- * Excessive or new exercise
- * Sports injury
Risk factors can include:
- * Participating in sports or other moderately to extremely strenuous physical activities.
Common Characteristics of Sprains and Strains:
- * Localized pain
- * Swelling and warmth in the affected area
- * Progressive loss of motion
- * Ecchymosis
- * Pain
- * Inflammation
- * Ecchymosis
- * Elevated skin temperature in the affected area
While surgery may be possibly necessary for some extreme sprains and strains, most can be treated without surgery, and only require general non-medication oriented treatments or some use of medication to alleviate pain, swelling, etc.
- * Using the RICE method (rest, ice, compression, and elevation)
- * Rehab and exercise program
- * Limited weight bearing activity that could hurt the injured area
- * Elevation of affected joint above the level of the heart for 48 to 72 hours
- * ROM (range-of-motion) exercises.
- * Vitamin C supplements
- * Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
- * Analgesics
- * Cox-2 inhibitors
- * Depends on the extent of the injury
- * Better mobility
- * Diminishing levels of pain
- * Increased comfort
- * Identify factors that increase the chance of injury