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Osteoarthritis (OA)

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a form of arthritis in which one or more joints undergo degenerative changes, including subchondral bony sclerosis, loss of articular cartilage, and proliferation of bone spurs (osteophytes) and cartilage in the joint. Inflammation of the synovial membrane of the  joint is common late in the disease, Osteoarthritis is the  most common form of arthritis. Its cause is unknown but may include chemical, mechanical, genetic, metabolic and endocrine factors.Emotional stress often aggravates the condition. The disease usually begins with pain after exercise or use of the joint. Stiffness, tenderness to the touch, crepitus, and enlargement develop. Deformity, incomplete dislocation, and synovial effusion may eventually occur. Involvement of the hip, knee, or spine causes more disability than osteoarthritis of other areas. Treatment includes rest of the involved joints; use of a cane, a walker, or crutches to decrease weight-bearing; heat; and antiinflammatory drugs. Overweight people should try to loss weight if possible. Systemic corticosteroids are contraindicated, but intraarticular injections of corticosteroids may give relief. Surgical treatments is sometimes necessary and may reduce pain  and greatly improve the function of a joint. Hip replacement, joint decompression laminectomy are some of the srgical procedures used in treating advanced osteoarthritis. Also called degenerative joint disease.